One can say that nearly every utterance is in some way dependent on the time of its production. It might be in seven or in four days or even the day after tomorrow.
Bakker, Pointing at the Past: Peripheral and Nuclear Semantics Chapter 2. Formula, Context, and Synonymy Chapter 3.
How Oral is Oral Composition? Mimesis as Performance Chapter 5. The Poetics of Deixis Chapter 6. Storytelling in the Future Chapter 7.
Similes, Augment, and the Language of Immediacy Chapter 8. Mohammed and the Mountain Bibliography Chapter 5. The Poetics of Deixis Deixis is what speakers do to locate themselves in space and time, with respect to things, events, and each other.
Not being deictic is not communicating, not being in a situation, not being. This is what happens in some narratives, whose narrator disappears behind the events of the story and which seem to be deploying themselves without the intervention of any speaker. Such narrative, however, is strictly a written achievement, made possible by the fictional space that writing creates.
This Chapter is concerned with deixis in Homer and Hesiod. Storytelling is a matter of remembering, of imagining, of recreating things past or absent. And yet no story can exist in isolation from a here and now. For one thing, there is always the medium of language, which represents in the present what happened in the past.
In Homer, the verse and the oral formulas studied by Milman Parry are an important aspect of this immediacy, this physical presence, of language. The evocation of the past is necessarily a matter of the present, an act of narrative that needs two parties to succeed. Any narrative will thus display a mixture of past and present, of far and near.
In Homer, we see such immediate deixis frequently in the discourse of characters, as they react to the reality surrounding them. To designate the difference between deixis in the present and repetition of the past, I will simply speak of an opposition between deixis and anaphora.
Languages may or may not provide separate deictic elements for these two jobs. Scholars have long noted that old forms coexist alongside recent ones in Homer in ways that go beyond anything similar in ordinary language.
The German term Kunstsprache has become the standard term for this peculiarity. In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, scholars were mostly concerned with deducing the relative age of contexts from the relative age of the linguistic forms found in those contexts.
Their aim was to establish a chronology of compositional layers on the basis of linguistic evidence provided by our text. Thus, certain scenes, books, and discourse types, have been thought, on the basis of various linguistic and stylistic criteria, to be more recent than others, and so to belong to a different stratum of Homeric composition.
The question thus arises whether the linguistic findings can be reconciled with narratological considerations and which one of the two approaches has to take priority in the explanation.
We tend to emphasize communication rather than composition, and we conceive of the epic performance as the enactment, between a performer and his audience in their here and now, of a heroic past that is distant, yet alive, and accessible through the recognized medium of the poetic tradition.
It is, I believe, a major task in Homer studies today to recover, if possible, some of that interaction. The new, performative view of Homeric poetry has important consequences for the conception of Kunstsprache and its diachronic layering.
To my mind, a crucial aspect that has been overlooked or underestimated in oral-formulaic theory, is archaism, the positive importance of old forms for Homeric poetry and narrative.
The presence of old forms, in other words, can reflect a narrative intention, and the process of linguistic innovation is not as blind and relentless as has sometimes been thought.between deixis and anaphora as separate linguistic-mental actions, and so it parts with the notion in Biihler's theory that allows for the anaphoric use of deictics (see also Ehlich, , ).
This volume contains essays that explore explicit and implicit communication through linguistic research. Taking as a framework Paul Grice's theories on “what is said,” the contributors explore a number of areas, including: the boundary between semantics and pragmatics; the concept of implicit.
An introduction and conclusion relate pragmatics to other fields in linguistics and other disciplines concerned with language usage - psychology, philosophy, anthropology and literature.
Many students in these disciplines, as well as students of linguistics, will find this a valuable textbook/5(5). Linguistics and Philosophy , consistent with the notion of an index as it was originally introduced by Peirce.
Various alternative. GEOFFREY NUNBERG. INDEXICALITY AND DEIXIS. and. INDEXICALITY AND DEIXIS. this this. in. and. the (i): they. be of. The notion of text linguistics designates ‘any work in language science devoted to the text as the primary object of inquiry’ (Beaugrande & Dressler, ).
The philosophical underpinnings of this article are the Peircian notion of the triadic nature of the sign as iconic, linguistic and indexical, and the use of the sign as a "Zeug" or thing as a means of pointing to or "deixis" in the context of creative activity in the classroom.