It stated that, where parliament had made grants for land, or for the construction, enlargement or repair of school buildings, these were not to be sold, exchanged or mortgaged without the written consent of the Secretary of State for the Home Department. Following his speech, in March Sir James Graham, Home Secretary in Robert Peel's government, introduced a bill 'for regulating the employment of children and young persons in factories, and for the better education of children in factory districts, in England and Wales'.
See Article History Alternative Title: Johnson Samuel Johnson, byname Dr. Johnson, born September 18,Lichfield, StaffordshireEngland—died December 13,LondonEnglish critic, biographer, essayist, poet, and lexicographer, regarded as one of the greatest figures of 18th-century life and letters.
For future generations, Johnson was synonymous with the later 18th century in England. The disparity between his circumstances and achievement gives his life its especial interest.
From childhood he suffered from a number of physical afflictions. This was succeeded by various medical treatments that left him with disfiguring scars on his face and neck. He was nearly blind in his left eye and suffered from highly noticeable tics that may have been indications of Tourette syndrome.
Johnson was also strong, vigorous, and, after a fashion, athletic. He liked to ride, walk, and swim, even in later life. He was tall and became huge.
A few accounts bear witness to his physical strength—as well as his character—such as his hurling an insolent theatregoer together with his seat from the stage into the pit or his holding off would-be robbers until the arrival of the watch.
Bs0u10e01 From his earliest years Johnson was recognized not only for his remarkable intelligence but also for his pride and indolence. In he entered grammar school in Lichfield. At school he made two lifelong friends: Edmund Hector, later a surgeon, and John Taylor, future prebendary of Westminster and justice of the peace for Ashbourne.
In Johnson entered Pembroke College, Oxford. He stayed only 13 months, until Decemberbecause he lacked the funds to continue.
Yet it proved an important year. Despite the poverty and pride that caused him to leave, he retained great affection for Oxford. In the following year Johnson became undermaster at Market Bosworth grammar school, a position made untenable by the overbearing and boorish Sir Wolstan Dixie, who controlled appointments.
After failing in his quest for another teaching position, he joined his friend Hector in Birmingham. In or he published some essays in The Birmingham Journal, none of which have survived.
Published inthis work shows signs of the mature Johnson, such as his praise of Lobo, in the preface, for not attempting to present marvels: One of his students, David Garrickwould become the greatest English actor of the age and a lifelong friend, though their friendship was not without its strains.
The school soon proved a failure, and he and Garrick left for London in In and he published a series of satiric works that attacked the government of Sir Robert Walpole and even the Hanoverian monarchy: A loose translation, an imitation applies the manner and topics of an earlier poet to contemporary conditions.
The most famous line in the poem and the only one in capitals is: Marmor Norfolciense satirizes Walpole and the house of Hanover.
The latter two works show the literary influence of the Irish writer Jonathan Swift. Johnson at this time clearly supported the governmental opposition, which was composed of disaffected Whigs, Tories, Jacobites those who continued their allegiance to the Stuart line of James IIand Nonjurors those who refused to take either the oath of allegiance to the Hanover kings or the oath of abjuration of James II and the Stuarts.
Despite claims to the contrary, Johnson was neither a Jacobite nor a Nonjuror. His Toryism, which he sometimes expressed for shock value, was based upon his conviction that the Tories could be counted upon to support the Church of England as a state institution.Samuel Johnson: Samuel Johnson, English critic, biographer, essayist, poet, and lexicographer who was one of the greatest figures of 18th-century life and letters.
He is well remembered for his aphorisms, but his criticism is perhaps his most significant form of writing. Learn more about Johnson’s life . Old English literature, or Anglo-Saxon literature, encompasses the surviving literature written in Old English in Anglo-Saxon England, in the period after the settlement of the Saxons and other Germanic tribes in England (Jutes and the Angles) c.
, after the withdrawal of the Romans, and "ending soon after the Norman Conquest" in These works include genres such as epic poetry. + free ebooks online.
Did you know that you can help us produce ebooks by proof-reading just one page a day? Go to: Distributed Proofreaders. References - M. This page lists references with citation tags that begin with the letter nationwidesecretarial.com other references and a documentation on how these references are cited, see the main references nationwidesecretarial.com can also click on these direct links to the various pages.
This article is focused on English-language literature rather than the literature of England, so that it includes writers from Scotland, Wales, and the whole of Ireland, as well as literature in English from countries of the former British Empire, including the United nationwidesecretarial.comr, until the early 19th century, it only deals with the literature of the United Kingdom and Ireland.
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