An Introduction to Christianity Dr. Meredith Sprunger This document contains a brief history of Christianity, from its inception, through the middle ages and into the twentieth century. The Religion of the Fatherhood of God and the Brotherhood of Man Mediated by Jesus Christ Christianity, stemming out of Judaism and developing primarily in the West, has become the largest religion of the world even though, except for Islam, it is the youngest major world religion. Approximately one in every three persons on earth is identified with Christianity.
See Article History Alternative Title: The church originated in the late 17th century among followers of Jakob Ammann.
History and church structure Jakob Ammann c. Ammann insisted that any excommunicated Mennonite church member should be shunned socially and that anyone who lied should be excommunicated. Although Ammann sought reconciliation with the Mennonites, he continued to insist that all who had been excommunicated should be avoided, and therefore his attempts at reconciliation failed.
Amish communities sprang up in Switzerland, Alsace, Germany, Russiaand Hollandbut emigration to North America in the 19th and 20th centuries and assimilation with Mennonite groups gradually eliminated the Amish in Europe.
The Amish began emigrating to North America early in the 18th century; they first settled in eastern Pennsylvaniawhere a large settlement remains. During the next 50 years, about two-thirds of the Amish formed separate, small churches of their own or joined either the Mennonite Church or the General Conference Mennonite Church.
In the early 21st century there were aboutAmish living in more than Old Order Amish settlements in the United States and Canada ; the largest were located in Pennsylvania, OhioIndianaIowaIllinoisand Kansasand others were found in WisconsinMaineMissouriand Minnesota.
Their settlements are divided into church districts, autonomous congregations of about 75 baptized members. There are no church buildings.
Each district has a bishop, two to four preachers, and an elder; but there are no general conferences, mission groups, or cooperative agencies. Beliefs and way of life Humility, family, communityand separation from the world are the mainstays of the Amish.
Everyday life and custom are governed by an unwritten code of behaviour called the Ordnung, and shunning Meidung remains an integral way in which the community deals with disobedient members. In formal religious doctrine, the Amish differ little from the Mennonites. Holy Communion is celebrated twice each year, and foot washing is practiced by both groups.
Persons are baptized when they are admitted to formal membership in the church, about the age of 17 to 20 years. Religious services are conducted in High German, and Pennsylvania Dutch see Pennsylvania German —an admixture of High German, various German dialectsand English—is spoken at home and is common in daily discourse.
The services are held on a rotating basis in family homes and barns. The Budget, established inis the national newspaper serving the many Amish and Mennonite communities; it is published in Sugarcreek, Ohio.
The Amish are best known for their plain clothing, most of it self-made, and nonconformist lifestyle.
Men and boys wear broad-brimmed black hats, dark-coloured suits, straight-cut coats without lapels, broadfall pants, suspenders, solid-coloured shirts, and black socks and shoes.
Their shirts may fasten with conventional buttons, but their coats and vests fasten with hooks and eyes. Men grow beards after they marry but are forbidden to have mustaches.
Old Order Amish women and girls wear bonnets, long full dresses with capes over the shoulders, shawls, and black shoes and stockings; their capes and aprons are fastened with straight pins or snaps. Amish women never cut their hair, which is worn in a bun, and they are not allowed to wear jewelry of any kind.
The Amish attire, which is essentially that of 17th-century European peasants, reflects their reluctance to change, their respect for tradition, and their interpretation of biblical strictures against conforming to the ways of the world e. The Old Order Amish shun personal home-based telephones but will occasionally use a communal one.
They also eschew automobiles. They ride bicycles and drive horse-drawn buggies instead, though many of them will, on occasion and in emergencies, ride in cars, trains, and buses operated by others.
Although the buggies are traditional boxlike vehicles, they are not always black, as commonly thought; some of them are white, gray, or even yellow, and many Amish and Mennonite groups can be distinguished by their chosen colour of buggy.
The buggies may also be equipped with such modern conveniences as heaters, windshield wipers, and upholstered seats. Bottle gas is often used to operate appliances, even barbecue grills, and gas-pressured lanterns and lamps might be used for indoor lighting.An Introduction to Mennonite History: A Popular History of the Anabaptists and the Mennonites 3rd Edition.
In the 19th century, natural history collections and museums were popular. The European expansion and naval expeditions employed naturalists, while curators of grand museums showcased preserved and live specimens of the varieties of life. Charles Darwin was an English graduate educated and trained in the disciplines of natural history. Such . Timeline of Amish-Mennonite Movements. Click chart to download PDF This chart shows three periods of Amish-Mennonite movements: s through early s (regional conferences), the early to late s (Conservative Conference), and the mids to present (Beachy). The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in led by Jakob Ammann. Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites. The latter mostly assimilated into the main society.
The Amish: A Concise Introduction by Steven Nolt may be the first non-fiction book about the Amish that I have read in its entirety. (That comes after twenty years or so of reading hundreds of Amish fiction books and bits and pieces of related non-fiction books and online articles.)5/5(6).
1 Population and distribution The Amish as an ethnic group 2 History 3 Religion Hochmut and Demut Separation from the outside and between groups. In the 19th century, natural history collections and museums were popular. The European expansion and naval expeditions employed naturalists, while curators of grand museums showcased preserved and live specimens of the varieties of life.
Charles Darwin was an English graduate educated and trained in the disciplines of natural history. Such . The history of the Amish church began with a schism in Switzerland within a group of Swiss and Alsatian Anabaptists in led by Jakob Ammann.
Those who followed Ammann became known as Amish. In the second half of the 19th century, the Amish divided into Old Order Amish and Amish Mennonites. The latter mostly assimilated into the main society. Timeline of Amish-Mennonite Movements. Click chart to download PDF This chart shows three periods of Amish-Mennonite movements: s through early s (regional conferences), the early to late s (Conservative Conference), and the mids to present (Beachy).