Before I get into it, I want to take issue with the headline that the editor put on the essay: I was wrong about this; see update below. I live in a mixed-race neighborhood now. I would much rather live in a stable middle-class neighborhood that was predominantly black, Latino, Asian, or any non-white minority than filled with white people who were violent, racist, and chaotic of which there are plenty in my part of the world.
Introduction Touch is one of the most essential elements of human development, a profound method of communication, a critical component of the health and growth of infants, and a powerful healing force Bowlby, ; Harlow,; Barnett, Touch has been an essential part of ancient healing practices.
In his seminal work, Touching: The Human Significance of the Skin, Ashley Montagu brings together a vast array of studies shedding light on the role of skin and physical touch in human development. He goes on to illuminate how the sensory system, the skin, is the most important organ system of the body, because unlike other senses, a human being cannot survive without the physical and behavioral functions performed by the skin.
Before Montague published his classic book inHarlow set the stage for our understanding of the importance of touch for emotional, physiological and interpersonal development in human and non-human infants.
In line with Harlow, Montagu concludes: Primarily Euro-American cultures in general, particularly that of North American white-Anglos, have developed a set of unspoken taboos in regard to touch. Based on Cohen and Hunter and Struve's, work, following are short descriptions of these cultural, mostly unspoken, taboos: The sick and the elderly are often housed away in specialized board and care facilities, where much of time hospital staff do not value touch as an essential part of care.
Touch, in this article, refers to any physical contact occurring between a psychotherapist and a client or a patient in the context of psychotherapy.
Touch is one of many non-verbal modes of communications i. This paper looks at touch as an adjunct to verbal psychotherapy. However, it also reviews the literature on body psychotherapies where touch is a key therapeutic tool.
Touch is also likely to increase the sense of connection and trust between a therapist and a client Phalan, ; Smith et. The enhancement of the therapeutic alliance is of utmost importance, and as has been extensively documented, the quality of the relationship between therapist and client is the best predictor of therapeutic outcome Lambert, Touch, in this paper, refers primarily to touch initiated by the therapist.
However, when a client initiates or requests touch, the therapists must use his or her clinical judgment to ascertain whether providing or withholding touch is ethical and clinically advantageous in each therapeutic situation.
Starting with Freud, traditional psychoanalysis looks at touch as an obstacle to analysis and cure of neurosis Fosshage, For a variety of reasons, the field at large has embraced the analytic hands-off stance.
More recently, risk management guidelines, attorneys' advice columns and ethical and legal experts have joined the psychoanalysts to warn us about the perils of touch. Touch in therapy has joined the list of modern risk management-inspired taboos:There have been numerous definitions of culture.
Dwight Heath 1 offers a simple definition: "It [culture] is a system of patterns of belief and behavior that shape the worldview of the member of a society.
As such, it serves as a guide for action, a cognitive map, and a grammar for behavior.". A1C A form of hemoglobin used to test blood sugars over a period of time. ABCs of Behavior An easy method for remembering the order of behavioral components: Antecedent, Behavior, Consequence.
The Effect Of Organizational Culture On Organizational Efficiency: The Moderating Role Of Organizational Environment and CEO Values.
Loosely defined, culture refers to the shared values, beliefs and norms of a specific group of people. Culture, therefore, influences the manner we learn, live and behave.
Because of this, many theorists believe that culture is . Abstract.
There has been a vigorous debate in recent time, about heredity versus environment and how they coalesce to create personalities, behaviors, and psychopathology that appeared unique to each person and influenced their developmental process.
This study explores and used different methodological approach to lifespan development to measure and analyze the interplay of genes and. The Importance of Values and Culture in Ethical Decision Making Authored By: Christine Chmielewski Ethical standards are the standards of our environment that are acceptable to most people.